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The invasion by Russian forces at the beginning of the war was followed by the German occupation from 1941 to 1944. He was the spiritual leader during two world wars and seven changes of political regime, including Nazi and Soviet.
Towards the end of the war, Ukraine became definitively part of the Soviet Union. His tireless pastoral work, his defense of the rights of his people, his charitable and ecumenical efforts made the Church an influential social institution in Western Ukraine.
Orthodox clergy and laity in Ukraine were dissatisfied with the close connections of the Russian Orthodox Church with Russian national interests.
"Ukrainophile" movements began and after the Russian Revolution in 1917 a movement began to gain autocephalous status for Ukrainian Orthodoxy.
Attempts to proclaim autocephaly in the 1920s and 1940s were, however, repressed by the Soviet powers.
This happened before the Great Church Schism of 1054 divided Christian East from West.
The Kievan Church inherited the traditions of the Byzantine East and was part of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
The war on religion was the ideology of the Communist regime and no effort was spared.